The standard disclaimer goes here. These statements haven't been evaluated by the FDA. These have just been our observations. There are a number of potential health benefits, some of which are listed below.
Cannabidiol May Protect The Nervous System and Help With Neurodegenerative Diseases
CBD was found to prevent toxic effects of neurotransmitter glutamate and radical oxygen species (ROS) in the brain, thus preventing brain cell death. (1, 2)
CBD has antioxidant activity greater than vitamin C (ascorbic acid) or vitamin E (α-tocopherol) (1)
CBD may also protect brain cells from beta-amyloid toxicity, making it a potential therapeutic agent in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. (3,4)
CBD may also protect the brain from ischemia. (5,6)
Early human studies showed a dose-related improvement in patients with Parkinson’s disease treated with 100–600 mg/day of CBD over a 6-week period (7)
However, another study failed to show any beneficial effect of a mixture of THC and CBD either on Parkinson’s disease or dyskinesia (8)
CBD has been shown to reverse cognitive deficits of Alzheimer’s disease in animal models (9)
CBD, due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, may be a promising agent to treat and prolong survival in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) patients. (10)
CBD increased tumor cell death in leukemia and colon cancer.
Cannabidiol May Relieve Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms
Cannabis derivatives may relieve symptoms in multiple sclerosis patients. (11)
Sativex, a combination of CBD and THC, is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of muscle tightness, pain, sleep disturbances, and urinary incontinence in people with multiple sclerosis. (12, 13, 14)
Cannabidiol Fights Against Cancer
CBD and other chemicals found in Cannabis have an anti-tumor effect and could be used to improve standard cancer treatments. (15)
CBD successfully stopped cancer cells in multiple different cervical cancer varieties and decreased the ability of the cancer cells to produce energy, leading to their death. (16)
CBD treatment helps lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells kill cancer cells better. (17)
CBD increased tumor cell death in leukemia and colon cancer. (18, 19, 20)
CBD also decreased human glioma cell growth and invasion, thus suggesting a possible role of CBD as an anti-tumor agent. (21, 22)
Cannabinoids may be promising tools in combination therapy for breast and prostate cancer, due to their direct anti-tumor effects, their ability to improve the efficacy of conventional anti-tumor drugs, and their usefulness as palliative treatment. (23, 24, 25)
Cannabidiol Reduces Inflammation and Improves Autoimmunity
CBD reduces the growth of neutrophils, and their migration to a target. (26)
CBD also reduced the production of chemokines such as macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1 beta) by B-cells. (26)
Macrophages from animals treated with CBD produced higher levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and lower levels of IL-10.
Due to its anti-inflammatory role, CBD is a very promising therapeutic agent for a variety of inflammatory and pain-associated disorders.
Cannabidiol Has Therapeutic Potential for Schizophrenia
CBD is a potential treatment for psychosis. (27, 28)
CBD improves the symptoms of schizophrenia. However, what regions of the brain are affected and the mechanism of action producing this dynamic are currently not known. (29, 30)
Studies suggest that CBD has a pharmacological effect similar to that of atypical anti-psychotic drugs, but with fewer side effects. (31)
Cannabidiol May Help With Epileptic Seizures
CBD may be a promising therapy for treatment-resistant epilepsy. (32, 33)
In a survey including parents of children with treatment-resistant epilepsy, 84% of parents reported a reduction in their child’s seizure frequency while taking CBD. (34)
These children also experienced increased alertness, better mood and improved sleep; drowsiness and fatigue occurred as side effects.
After 3 months of treatment with a purified 98% oil-based CBD extract, 39% of children with treatment-resistant epilepsy had a more than a 50% reduction in seizures. (32)
Out of 8 patients, suffering from secondary generalized epilepsy resistant to anti-epileptic drugs, 7 had improvement of their disease state after receiving 200-300 mg/d of cannabidiol for as long as 4.5 months. (35)
Cannabidiol Relieves Pain. Even Chronic.
Studies suggest that cannabinoids may be a new class of drugs for the treatment of chronic pain. (36,37)
CBD significantly decreased chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain in rodents. (38)
Cannabidiol, especially in a combination with THC, shows promising results for the treatment of postoperative pain, chronic pain associated with multiple sclerosis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and neuropathic pain. (39,40,41)
Sativex, a combination of CBD and THC as a sublingual spray, is effective in treating neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis and in cancer patients with advanced pain. (42,43)
A recent study has shown that CBD and opioids act together to relieve pain. (44)
50% reduction in seizures in 39% of children with treatment-resistant epilepsy after only 3 months. #cbd #changinglives
Cannabidiol Reduces Anxiety
Cannabidiol reduces anxiety in both healthy individuals and patients with social anxiety disorder. (45,46)
Studies showed that CBD significantly reduced anxiety and discomfort caused by public speaking. (47,48)
CBD also reduced anxiety caused by the use of THC. (49)
Researchers suggest that it may be effective for panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. (50)
CBD is a potential therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment. (51)
Administered as needed, it appears safe, well-tolerated, and may be beneficial to treat a number of anxiety-related disorders like OCD, PTSD, GAD, depression, panic disorder and social phobias.
Cannabidiol Lowers Incidence of Diabetes
The study which included 4,657 adult men and women showed that current marijuana use was associated with 16% lower fasting insulin levels, and smaller waist circumferences, a factor connected to the onset of diabetes. (52)
Cannabidiol significantly reduces the development of diabetes in young non-obese mice, from 86% in non-treated mice to only 30% in mice treated with CBD. (53,54)
Cannabidiol can inhibit and delay the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic cells and the production of inflammatory cytokines in diabetics. (54)
This data strengthen assumptions that CBD, which is known to be safe in man, can possibly be used as a therapeutic agent for treatment of type 1 diabetes at an early stage of the disease. (53)
Cannabidiol May Be Beneficial In The Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis
Due to its anti-inflammatory effect, cannabinoids may provide relief of joint pain and swelling, and decrease joint destruction and disease progression.
Administration of CBD protect joints against severe damage, decreased progression and produces improvement of arthritis in animal models.
The first controlled trial showed that administration of Sativex over five weeks produced significant improvements in intensity of pain on movement and at rest, quality of sleep, and inflammation. No serious adverse effects were observed.
CBD increased tumor cell death in leukemia and colon cancer.
Cannabidiol May Promote Heart Health
Study reported that CBD caused dilation of arteries, and protected blood vessel from damage in animal models.
CBD reduced the infarct size (size of damage from clogged blood vessels) in the heart and brain, and irregular heart rhythms in animal models.
Studies showed that CBD reduced the heart rate and blood pressure in response to anxiety or stressful situations.
CBD also influenced white blood cell function and platelet aggregation.
However, further work is required to prove the ability of CBD to prevent the development of heart and blood vessels disorders in humans.
Resources and References
Citations and Resources
1 Cannabidiol and (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants. Authors: A. J. Hampson, M. Grimaldi, J. Axelrod, and D. Wink
2 Neuroprotective Effect of(−)Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol in N-Methyl-d-Aspartate-Induced Retinal Neurotoxicity (Involvement of Peroxynitrite) Authors: Azza B. El-Remessy, Ibrahim E. Khalil, Suraporn Matragoon, Gamal Abou-Mohamed, Nai-Jer Tsai, Penny Roon, Ruth B. Caldwell, Robert W. Caldwell, Keith Green, and Gregory I. Liou
3: Neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component from Cannabis sativa, on beta-amyloid-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. Authors: Iuvone T, Esposito G, Esposito R, Santamaria R, Di Rosa M, Izzo AA.
4 The marijuana component cannabidiol inhibits beta-amyloid-induced tau protein hyperphosphorylation through Wnt/beta-catenin pathway rescue in PC12 cells. Authors: Esposito G, De Filippis D, Carnuccio R, Izzo AA, Iuvone T.
5 Cannabidiol Prevents Cerebral Infarction Via a Serotonergic 5-Hydroxytryptamine 1A Receptor–Dependent Mechanism. Authors: Kenichi Mishima, Kazuhide Hayakawa, Kohji Abe, Tomoaki Ikeda, Nobuaki Egashira, Katsunori Iwasaki, Michihiro Fujiwara.
6 Delayed treatment with cannabidiol has a cerebroprotective action via a cannabinoid receptor-independent myeloperoxidase-inhibiting mechanism. Authors: Hayakawa K, Mishima K, Nozako M, Hazekawa M, Irie K, Fujioka M, Orito K, Abe K, Hasebe N, Egashira N, Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M.
7 Open label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders. Authors: Consroe P, Sandyk R, Snider SR.
8 Cannabis for dyskinesia in Parkinson disease: a randomized double-blind crossover study. Authors: Carroll CB, Bain PG, Teare L, Liu X, Joint C, Wroath C, Parkin SG, Fox P, Wright D, Hobart J, Zajicek JP.
9 Long-term cannabidiol treatment prevents the development of social recognition memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice. Authors: Cheng D, Spiro AS, Jenner AM, Garner B, Karl T.
10 Transgenics, toxicity and therapeutics in rodent models of mutant SOD1-mediated familial ALS. Authors: Turner BJ, Talbot K.
11 Oromucosal delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: an uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial. Authors: Rog DJ, Nurmikko TJ, Young CA.
12 Randomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis. Authors: Collin C, Davies P, Mutiboko IK, Ratcliffe S; Sativex Spasticity in MS Study Group.
13 Cannabis, pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine. Authors: Russo EB, Guy GW, Robson PJ.
14 Meta-analysis of cannabis based treatments for neuropathic and multiple sclerosis-related pain. Authors: M Iskedjian, B Bereza, A Gordon, C Piwko, and TR Einarson.
15 Phyto-, endo- and synthetic cannabinoids: promising chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of breast and prostate carcinomas. Authors: A. I. Fraguas-Sánchez, A. I. Torres-Suárez, A. Fernández-Carballido
16 Cannabidiol rather than Cannabis sativa extracts inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Authors: Sindiswa T. Lukhele and Lesetja R. Motadi
17 Cannabinoids increase lung cancer cell lysis by lymphokine-activated killer cells via upregulation of ICAM-1. Authors: Haustein M, Ramer R, Linnebacher M, Manda K, Hinz B.
18 Cannabidiol-Induced Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells: A Novel Role of Cannabidiol in the Regulation of p22 phox and Nox4 Expression. Authors: Robert J. McKallip, Wentao Jia, Jerome Schlomer, James W. Warren, Prakash S. Nagarkatti and Mitzi Nagarkatti
19 Gamma-irradiation enhances apoptosis induced by cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic cannabinoid, in cultured HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cells. Authors: Gallily R, Even-Chena T, Katzavian G, Lehmann D, Dagan A, Mechoulam R.
20 Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis by a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol. Authors: Romano B, Borrelli F, Pagano E, Cascio MG, Pertwee RG, Izzo AA.
21 Anti-tumor Effects of Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid, on Human Glioma Cell Lines. Authors: Paola Massi, Angelo Vaccani, Stefania Ceruti, Arianna Colombo, Maria P. Abbracchio and Daniela Parolaro
22 Cannabidiol inhibits human glioma cell migration through a cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism. Authors: Angelo Vaccani, Paola Massi, Arianna Colombo, Tiziana Rubino, and Daniela Parolaro
23 Phyto-, endo- and synthetic cannabinoids: promising chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of breast and prostate carcinomas. Authors: A. I. Fraguas-Sánchez, A. I. Torres-Suárez, A. Fernández-Carballido
24 Cannabidiol Induces Programmed Cell Death in Breast Cancer Cells by Coordinating the Cross-talk between Apoptosis and Autophagy. Authors: Ashutosh Shrivastava, Paula M. Kuzontkoski, Jerome E. Groopman and Anil Prasad
25 Pathways mediating the effects of cannabidiol on the reduction of breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Authors: Sean D. McAllister, Ryuichi Murase, Rigel T. Christian, Darryl Lau, Anne J. Zielinski, Juanita Allison, Carolina Almanza, Arash Pakdel, Jasmine Lee, Chandani Limbad, Yong Liu, Robert J. Debs, Dan H. Moore, Pierre-Yves Desprez
26 Cannabidiol--recent advances. Authors: Mechoulam R1, Peters M, Murillo-Rodriguez E, Hanus LO.
27 A critical review of the antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol: 30 years of a translational investigation. Authors: Zuardi AW, Crippa JA, Hallak JE, Bhattacharyya S, Atakan Z, Martin-Santos R, McGuire PK, Guimarães FS.
28 Cannabidiol as a potential treatment for psychosis. Authors: Schubart CD, Sommer IE, Fusar-Poli P, de Witte L, Kahn RS, Boks MP.
29 Does cannabidiol have a role in the treatment of schizophrenia? Authors: Gururajan A, Malone DT.
30 Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Authors: F M Leweke, D Piomelli, F Pahlisch1, D Muhl, C W Gerth, C Hoyer, J Klosterkötter, M Hellmich and D Koethe
31 Medical use of cannabis. Cannabidiol: a new light for schizophrenia? Author: Deiana S.
32 Efficacy And Safety Of Epidiolex (cannabidiol) In Children And Young Adults With Treatment-resistant Epilepsy: Initial Data From An Expanded Access Program. Authors: Orrin Devinsky, Joseph Sullivan, Daniel Friedman, Elizabeth Thiele, Eric Marsh, Linda Laux, Julie Hedlund, Nicole Tilton, Judith Bluvstein and Maria Cilio
33 Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients. Authors: Cunha JM, Carlini EA, Pereira AE, Ramos OL, Pimentel C, Gagliardi R, Sanvito WL, Lander N, Mechoulam R.
34 Report of a parent survey of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis use in pediatric treatment-resistant epilepsy. Authors: Brenda E. Porter and Catherine Jacobson.
35 Hypnotic and antiepileptic effects of cannabidiol. Authors: Carlini EA, Cunha JM.
36 Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of constituents of Cannabis sativa L. Authors: Formukong EA, Evans AT, Evans FJ.
37 Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials. Authors: Mary E Lynch and Fiona Campbell
38 Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting α3 glycine receptors. Authors: Wei Xiong, Tanxing Cui, Kejun Cheng, Fei Yang, Shao-Rui Chen, Dan Willenbring, Yun Guan, Hui-Lin Pan, Ke Ren, Yan Xu, and Li Zhang
39 Role of the Cannabinoid System in Pain Control and Therapeutic Implications for the Management of Acute and Chronic Pain Episodes. Authors: J Manzanares, MD Julian, and A Carrascosa
40 Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Authors: Blake DR, Robson P, Ho M, Jubb RW, McCabe CS.
41 A multicenter dose-escalation study of the analgesic and adverse effects of an oral cannabis extract (Cannador) for postoperative pain management. Authors: Holdcroft A, Maze M, Doré C, Tebbs S, Thompson S.
42 Meta-analysis of cannabis based treatments for neuropathic and multiple sclerosis-related pain. Authors: Iskedjian M1, Bereza B, Gordon A, Piwko C, Einarson TR.
43 Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC:CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain. Authors: Johnson JR, Burnell-Nugent M, Lossignol D, Ganae-Motan ED, Potts R, Fallon MT.
44 Distinct interactions of cannabidiol and morphine in three nociceptive behavioral models in mice. Authors: Neelakantan H, Tallarida RJ, Reichenbach ZW, Tuma RF, Ward SJ, Walker EA.
45 Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report. Authors: Crippa JA, Derenusson GN, Ferrari TB, Wichert-Ana L, Duran FL, Martin-Santos R, Simões MV, Bhattacharyya S, Fusar-Poli P, Atakan Z, Santos Filho A, Freitas-Ferrari MC, McGuire PK, Zuardi AW, Busatto GF, Hallak JE.
46 Effects of ipsapirone and cannabidiol on human experimental anxiety. Authors: Zuardi AW, Cosme RA, Graeff FG, Guimarães FS.
47 Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients. Authors: Mateus M Bergamaschi, Regina Helena Costa Queiroz, Marcos Hortes Nisihara Chagas, Danielle Chaves Gomes de Oliveira, Bruno Spinosa De Martinis, Flávio Kapczinski,3,5 João Quevedo, Rafael Roesler, Nadja Schröder, Antonio E Nardi, Rocio Martín-Santos, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio Hallak, Antonio Waldo Zuardi, and José Alexandre S Crippa
48 Complex pharmacology of natural cannabinoids: evidence for partial agonist activity of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and antagonist activity of cannabidiol on rat brain cannabinoid receptors. Authors: Petitet F, Jeantaud B, Reibaud M, Imperato A, Dubroeucq MC.
49 Action of cannabidiol on the anxiety and other effects produced by delta 9-THC in normal subjects. Authors: Zuardi AW, Shirakawa I, Finkelfarb E, Karniol IG.
50 Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an anxiolytic drug. Authors: Alexandre Rafael de Mello Schier; Natalia Pinho de Oliveira Ribeiro; Adriana Cardoso de Oliveira e Silva, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio Hallak, José Alexandre S. Crippa, Antonio E. Nardi, Antonio Waldo Zuardi
51 Cannabidiol blocks long-lasting behavioral consequences of predator threat stress: possible involvement of 5HT1A receptors. Authors: Campos AC, Ferreira FR, Guimarães FS.
52 The Impact of Marijuana Use on Glucose, Insulin, and Insulin Resistance among US Adults. Authors: Elizabeth A. Penner, MD, MPH, Hannah Buettner, BA, Murray A. Mittleman, MD, DrPH
53 Cannabidiol Arrests Onset of Autoimmune Diabetes in NOD Mice. Authors: Lola Weiss, Michael Zeira, Shoshana Reich, Shimon Slavin, Itamar Raz, Raphael Mechoulam, and Ruth Gallily
54 Cannabidiol lowers incidence of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice. Authors: Weiss L, Zeira M, Reich S, Har-Noy M, Mechoulam R, Slavin S, Gallily R.
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